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北方民族服饰Traditional Dress of Northern Ethnic Groups
来源: 发布时间:2017-12-19 点击次数:63

        在中国的北方,生活着22个民族。在此,我们向您展示其中9个民族的传统服饰。

22 ethnic groups live in northern China, this exhibit showcases traditional dresses of 9 ethnic groups among them.


五彩花卉鹤八团红纱袍

满族·清代·北京


满族女服,红绸长袍,胯有开衩,周身绣墩莲及彩蝶。领缘、襟边、袖口镶补黑色缎及花边。

This robe was worn by Manchu women in the Qing Dynasty. The robe is silk and emboridered with lotus and butterfuly motif, while the collar and cuffs are decorated with needlework on black satin.


 墩兰彩蝶问红绸氅衣

满族·清代·北京


此衣为新妇或少妇穿用,中年妇女尚青莲色(藕合色)、深紫色,老年妇女唯深蓝一色。慈溪乳名“兰儿”,入宫后又曾被封为“兰贵人”,因此,她对兰花情有独钟。此类绣有兰花图案的服饰曾一度成为她的专宠,他人不可擅用。

The Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) was called "Lan'er" (meaning Orchid), and was given the title "Elegant Orchid" as the Emperor's concubine. Her affinity for orchids extended to her clothing, and during her reign, she alone could wear robes decorated with orchid motifs.


九蟒马蹄袖蓝纱蟒袍

满族·清代·北京


       清代满、汉族官服。蓝色、无领、大襟、熨褶素接马蹄袖。袍身彩绣蟒纹及海水江涯、鹤、蝠等图案,故又称“花衣”。多在喜庆日穿着,可单穿,亦可外罩补服等。蟒袍为皇子、皇子福晋、下至文武品官及命妇专用服饰。以其服色及所饰蟒纹数目多寡辨等级。一至三品官员袍身彩绣9条蟒纹;四至六品官员袍身彩绣8蟒;七至九品官员袍身彩绣5蟒。


The long silk robe was worn by Manchu or Han officials during the Qing Dynasty (1636—1912). This blue collarless robe features horse-hoof-shaped cuffs. This robe can be worn alone or worn as a coat in festivals. The color of the robe and the number of pythons(“Mang” in Chinese) correspond to the officials' ranks.


女朝褂

汉族·清代·北京


        七品文官朝褂,红缎面,蓝绸里。饰㶉鶒补子,绣鹤、寿带鸟、海水江涯、牡丹、茶花、桃花、兰花等图案。

This is the court robe of a 7th Ranked civil servent (the top rank being 1). It is made from red satin and lined with blue silk. The patch of a "Xichi" bird is to indicate the rank of the official wearing it. It is embroidered with motifs of cranes, peonies, camellias and orchids.


八团牡丹纹青缎褂

汉族·清代·北京


        这是一套清代汉族妇女的服装。汉族文化在影响满族的同时,其自身也受到了满族文化的影响。因此,汉族妇女的服装式样与满族女服很多相似之处。比如这件上衣的“八团”(前襟三团、后襟对应有三团、两肩各一团)样式与下摆的“海水江崖”纹样就来自于满族服饰文化——“八团“象征着满族八旗制度,而“海水江崖”纹象征绵延不断、四海升平和江山万代的意义。下装为马面裙,汉服的一种,前后共有四个裙门,两两重合。中间裙门重合而成的光面,俗称“马面”。马面裙始于明朝(可能可以追溯更早),延续至民国。清代马面裙较为繁复,重视马面的装饰,多用刺绣的等方式装饰马面。


This is an outfit for a Han woman in the Qing Dynasty, which shows great influence of Manchu culture. “Hai Shui Jiang Ya”  (sea water and overlapped hilltops which look like ginger buds) pattern was common in ancient architectures, porcelain, stone carving, garments or even furniture. It symbolizes everlasting ruler ship. The “Horse-face” skirt is one of the traditional Han garments, and is made of four overlapping pieces of  cloth in the front and back. The central piece of cloth is called the “horse face”.


绣花缎面童装

汉族·清代·北京


        清代童装,红缎面上衣,花布里,右衽、无扣,附结带一条,上绣彩花。绿缎面开裆裤,花布里,上绣彩花。


This is an outfit for children during Qing dynasty. This red satin children's jacket has a floral-patterned lining,  and trim. It is buttonless and instead is tied with straps. The matching green satin open-seat pants also have floral-patterned lining.


花鸟人物纹青绸肚兜

汉族·清代·北京


       蓝绸面,上绣婴戏莲等图案花纹,镶黑绸及彩色花边数道。


       This undergarment is made of blue silk, with embroideries of a baby playing with lotus.


竹节编汗衫

满族·清代·北京


       用一万多个细小竹管穿缀而成,呈方形网状,白布镶边。通风透气性能好,为旧时达官显贵夏季穿用之物,可避免因汗湿衣物贴于体表。


This is an undergarment made of over 10,000 small bamboo beads, which form little squares. In the past, only the rich and aristocrats could wear such undergarment during summer to keep cool and prevent clothes sticking against sweaty skin.


贴花马哈鱼皮男服

赫哲族·现代·黑龙江同江



        赫哲族传统男装,用马哈鱼皮制成。鱼皮衣是赫哲族最具特色的传统服饰,一般分为鱼皮长衣和鱼皮套裤。其制作过程大致分为六个步骤:剥皮、晒干、刮鳞、夯熟、染色、缝制(通常用兽筋线或鱼皮线)具有良好的防雨防水性能,十分适合赫哲族的渔猎生活。衣服左侧为鱼皮手套,右侧为鱼皮靰鞡。


This is a salmon skin suit, the traditional garb of Hezhe (Nanai) men.  Making clothing from fish skins is a tradition unique to the Hezhe. Fish skin clothing is waterproof, which is important as the Hezhe hunt and fish in the wet, cold forests of Manchuria along the Amur River (Heilongjiang River).


狍皮袍

鄂伦春族·民国·黑龙江黑河


        鄂伦春族传统男装。用冬季绒毛狍皮和狍筋线缝制而成。领部为猞猁皮毛。衣襟、袖口及胸部镶饰的黄色皮边,是用朽木煮水染制而成。 为便于骑马狩猎,袍子前后都有开衩,并装饰有云卷纹。


This is a robe worn by Oroqen men that is decorated with a cloud motif. The fur trim on the front and around the cuffs has been dyed yellow by boiling it with deadwood. There are slits on the front and back of the robe to make riding and hunting more conveient.



团花绿缎女夹袍

达斡尔族·民国·内蒙古莫力达瓦


        达斡尔族传统女服。绿色团花缎面。达斡尔族曾长期从事狩猎业和畜牧业,清代以前,传统服装以皮质袍服为主。民国以后,棉布、绸缎等纺织品输入渐多。


This is a robe worn by Daur women. It is made of green satin and embroidered with circular flower designs. Before the Qing Dynasty, the Daurs were pastorialists and their traditional clothes were mainly leather. In the Twentieth Century the Daurs settled and began to adopt other textiles such as satin.


珊瑚头饰锦缎盛装女服

蒙古族·清代·内蒙古鄂尔多斯



       已婚妇女盛装。内为红色花缎面、马蹄袖蒙古袍,外套织锦缎面对襟、四面开衩长坎肩。头饰由珊瑚、松石、银片、银链等穿缀而成。鄂尔多斯姑娘穿长袍,系腰带,婚后才在袍外套穿坎肩。因此,坎肩是女子已婚的标志。


This is the clothing of a Mongolian woman from the Qing Dynasty. It consists of a robe made of red damask, a brocade waistcoat and a headdress decorated with coral, precious stones and silver. Costumes like this varried according to region and social status. For example, girls from the region of Ordos wore a long robe with a belt, while in general waistcoats were only worn by married women.



彩袖女服

土族·20世纪60年代·青海互助


       土族传统女服。右衽长袍,外罩坎肩。右侧为绣花腰带,左侧是前搭子和针扎。衣袖的红色代表太阳,蓝色代表天空,黄色代表土地(五谷),白色代表乳汁。土族妇女因此被称为“穿彩虹花袖衫的人”。


This is a Tu (Monguor) woman's robe. The colors of those stripes - red, green, blue, yellow, and white - represent the sun, the grassland, the sky, grain, and milk.  As a result, Tu women are known as "the women with rainbow sleeves."


交领纳花袷袢

维吾尔族·清代·新疆



        维吾尔族男袍,花布里,丝质条格布面。一般在喜庆吉日时穿着。因其质地精良,制作费时,故只有贵族或家境富有者方能穿着。


This is a multi-colored Uygur robe. Its is made of striped silk with an embroidered lining. It is brightly colored and would have been worn for festivals and special occaisions. The artistry on this robe is of the highest quality, and it would have been worn by someone of the upper classes.


交领装饰长袖氅衣

乌孜别克族·清代·新疆伊犁



       乌孜别克族男装。条纹布面,花布里,交领无扣,线绣花边,衣袖窄长。这件大氅是乌孜别克族德高望重的老人和有声望的宗教人士穿的服装。


This is a cloak worn by Uzbek men. It is made of striped cloth, with an embroidered lining. It has a buttonless crossed collar, lace embroidery, and, long, narrow sleeves. This type of cloak would be worn by elders and releigious leaders.


毛线绣花丝绒男装

柯尔克孜族·20世纪50年代·新疆克孜勒苏


        柯尔克孜族传统服装。交领、对襟、无扣。绒布制,绣彩线花纹。结婚礼服。


These are traditional Kyrgyz wedding clothes. It has crossed collar and no buttons with an opening in front. It is made of flannel and decorated with colorful embroidery.


绣花贴边鹿皮裤

哈萨克族·清代·新疆


        哈萨克族传统男裤。黄色鹿皮制成。上缝条纹黄线,并绣团形花纹。


The trousers would have been worn by Kazakh men. They are made of brown deer leather, embellished with yellow strips and embroidered with circular patterns.



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